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Core features

Special constants

LIPS define #null and #void as Parser constants so they can be used inside quoted expressions:

(let ((lst '(#null #void)))
  (write (symbol? (car lst)))
  (newline)
  (write (symbol? (cadr lst)))
  (newline))
;; ==> #f
;; ==> #f

NOTE #null is the same as JavaScript null value and it's a false value. Similar to Kawa Scheme that use #!null.

#void constants is the same as result of (value) or (if #f #f). In Scheme it's unspecified value, but in LIPS it's JavaScript undefined. #void is not false value.

(eq? (if #f #f) (values))
;; ==> #t

Numerical tower

LIPS support full numerical tower (not yet 100% unit tested):

  • integers - using BitInt
  • floats - using JavaScript numbers
  • rationals
  • complex numbers (that can use integers, floats, or rationals)

LIPS define helper print procedure that display all its arguments with newline after each element.

(print 1 2 3)
;; ==> 1
;; ==> 2
;; ==> 3

Emoji

LIPS fully supports all Unicode characters, including emoji:

(define smiley #\😀)
(define poo #\💩)
(write (string-append (string smiley) " " (string poo)))
;; ==> "😀 💩"

You can also use them as part of symbols (e.g. as variables name):

(define (⏏️)
  (print "ejecting"))
(⏏️)
;; ==> ejecting

Macros

LIPS define both Lisp macros and Scheme hygienic macros (syntax-rules).

It also implements:

Gensyms

With lisp macros you can use gensyms, they are special Scheme symbols that use JavaScript symbols behind the scene, so they are proven to be unique. Additionally you can use named gensym if you pass string as first argument:

(gensym)
;; ==> #:g5
(gensym "sym")
;; ==> #:sym

Single argument eval

Eval in LIPS don't require second argument to eval. The environment is optional and default it's a result of calling (interaction-environment).

(define x 10)
(eval '(+ x x))
;; ==> 20
(define x 10)
(let ((x 20))
  (eval '(- x)))
;; ==> -10

But you can also use the second arguments:

(define x 10)
(let ((x 20))
  (eval '(- x) (current-environment)))
;; ==> -20

Read more about LIPS environments.

Procedures

Procedures in LIPS have access additional objects arguments, but the have nothing to do with JavaScript. arguments is an array/vector with calling arguments and it have an object callee which points to the same procedure. So you can create recursive functions with anonymous lambda:

((lambda (n)
   (if (<= n 0)
       1
       (* n (arguments.callee (- n 1))))) 10)
;; ==> 3628800

This is classic factorial function written as lambda without the name.

length property

LIPS functions similarly to JavaScript functions also have length property that indicate how many arguments a function accepts. If function get more or less argumenets it's not an error like in Scheme. More arguments are ignored, and if less arguments are passed they are undefined (#void).

(define (sum a b c)
  (+ a b c))

(print sum.length)
;; ==> 3

It return number of number arguments the rest (dot notation) arguments are ignored.

(define (sum a b . rest)
  (apply + a b rest))

(print sum.length)
;; ==> 3
(sum 1 2 3 4 5 6)
;; ==> 21

Doc strings

Procedures, macros, and variables can have doc strings.

(define (factorial n)
  "(factorial n)

   Calculate factorial of a given number"
  (if (<= n 0)
       1
       (* n (factorial (- n 1)))))

You can access doc string with help procedure or with __doc__ property.

(write factorial.__doc__)
"(factorial n)

Calculate factorial of a given number"

If you define variable or hygienic macro with doc string, the string is hidden (you can access it with __doc__), so help is the only way to access it:

(define-syntax q
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((_ x) 'x))
  "(q expression)

   Macro quote the expression")

(write q.__doc__)
;; ==> #void
(help q)
;; ==> (q expression)
;; ==>
;; ==> Macro quote the expression

Typechecking

LIPS do typechecking for all scheme procedures.

(+ "hello" 10)
;; ==> Expecting number got string

You can incorporate typechecking in your own code:

(let ((x 10))
  (typecheck "let" x "string" 0))
;; ==> Expecting string got number in expression `let` (argument 0)
(let ((x "string"))
  (typecheck "let" x "number"))
;; ==> Expecting number got string in expression `let`

There is also another function to check type of number:

(let ((i 10+10i))
  (typecheck-number "let" i "bigint"))
;; ==> Expecting bigint got complex in expression `let`

NOTE: In LIPS all integers are BigInts.

The last typecking function is typecheck-args that check if all arguments are of same type.

(let ((number '(1 10 1/2 10+10i)))
  (typecheck-args "number" "let" number))
;; ==> #void
(let ((number '(1 10 1/2 "string")))
  (typecheck-args "number" "let" number))
;; ==>  Expecting number got string in expression `let` (argument 4)

Integration with JavaScript

Dot notation

LIPS allow accessing JavaScript objects with dot notation:

document.querySelector
;; ==> #<procedure(native)>

Mutating object properties

You can use dot notation with set! to change the value:

(set! self.foo 10)
self.foo

top level self always points to a global object window in browser or global in Node.

There is also older API that still work, which is set-obj! but with dot notation you don't need it anymore:

(set-obj! self 'foo 10)
(display self.foo)
;; ==> 10

In both platforms you can access global JavaScript objects like normal variables:

(set! self.greet "hello, LIPS")
(write greet)
;; ==> "hello, LIPS"

Interact with DOM

Here is example how to add button to the page and add onclick handler using browser DOM (Document Object Model) API.

(let ((button (document.createElement "button")))
  (set! button.innerText "click me!")
  (set! button.onclick (lambda () (alert "Hello, LIPS Scheme!")))
  (let ((style button.style))
    (set! style.position "absolute")
    (set! style.zIndex 9999)
    (set! style.top 0)
    (set! style.left 0))
  (document.body.appendChild button))

Boxing

LIPS have its own representation for numbers, strings and characters. And when interacting with JavaScript the values may get boxed or unboxed automagically.

You should not confuse boxing with boxes (SRFI-111 and SRFI-195). LIPS boxing are part of implementation of Scheme data types. And SRFI boxes are containers written in Scheme. Name boxing came from JavaScript, when primitive values are wrapped in objects when you try to use them in object context (like accessing a property).

You need to be careful with some of the JavaScript native methods, since they can unbox the value when you don't when them to be unboxed.

Example is Array::push using with native LIPS types:

(let ((v (vector)))
  (v.push 1/2)
  (print v))
;; ==> #(0.5)

As you can see the rational number got unboxed and converted into JavaScript float numbers. Unboxing always can make you loose some information because LIPS types needs to be converted into native JavaScript data types. And JavaScript doesn't have a notion of rationals, there are only floating point numbers, and big ints.

Procedures

LIPS Scheme procedures are JavaScript functions, so you can call them from JavaScript.

(set! self.greet (lambda () "hello, LIPS"))

You can call this function from JavaScript

console.log(greet());
// ==> {__string__: 'hello, LIPS'}

Note that the value was not automagically unboxed because we are no longer in LIPS Scheme code and LIPS can't access native JavaScript. So to get the real a string you need to call valueoOf():

console.log(greet().valueOf());
// ==> hello, LIPS

Procedure arity

LIPS don't check the number of argumnents when calling a procedure:

(let ((test (lambda (a b c)
              (print a b c))))
  (test 10))
;; ==> 10
;; ==> #void
;; ==> #void

The same as with JavaScript if you don't pass an argument it will be undefined. But you still have full compatible with Scheme and use arguments with variable artity:

(let ((test (lambda (first . rest)
              (apply print first rest))))
  (test 1)
  (test 2 3 4))
;; ==> 1
;; ==> 2
;; ==> 3
;; ==> 4

Helper macros and functions

The most useful macro in LIPS (for interacting with JavaScript) is --> it acts like a chain of method calls in JavaScript

(--> "this is string" (split " ") (reverse) (join " "))
;; ==> "string is this"

You can chain methods that return arrays or string and call a method of them. The above expression is the same as JavaScript:

"this is string".split(' ').reverse().join(' ');

With --> you can also gab property of a function:

(--> #/x/ (test.call #/foo/ "foo"))
;; ==> #t
(let ((test-bar (--> #/x/ (test.bind #/bar/i))))
  (test-bar "BAR"))
;; ==> #t

You can also return a function:

(define test (--> #/x/ test))
(test.call #/foo/ "foo")
;; ==> #t

Read more about function::bind and function::call on MDN.

Legacy macros and functions

There are two legacy macros that are still part of LIPS, but you don't need them most of the time.

  • . - dot function was a first way to interact with JavaScript, it allowed to get property from an object:
(. document 'querySelector)

This returned function querySelector from document object in browser. Note that dot a function can only appear as first element of the list (it's handled in special way by the parser). In any other place dot is a pair separator, see documentation about Pairs in Scheme.

  • .. - this is a macro is that simplify usage of . procedure:
(.. document.querySelector)

You still sometimes may want to use this instead of --> when you want to get property from an object returned by expression.

In the old version of LIPS, you have to execute code like this:

((. document 'querySelector) "body")
((.. document.querySelector) "body")

The first expression return a Native JavaScript procedure that is then executed.

This is equivalent of:

(document.querySelector "body")

NOTE the only time when you still need . function is when you want to get the property of object returned by expression.

(let ((style (. (document.querySelector "body") 'style)))
  (set! style.background "red"))

Here we get a style object from the DOM node without sorting the reference to the DOM node.

NOTE because dot notation in symbols is not special syntax you can use code like this:

(let ((x #(1 2 3)))
  (print x.0)
  (print x.1)
  (print x.2))
;; ==> 1
;; ==> 2
;; ==> 3

Scheme functions

Scheme functions (lambda's) are JavaScript functions, so you can call them from JavaScript.

(set! window.foo (lambda () (alert "hello")))

If you define function like this, in browser REPL, you can call it from JavaScript (e.g. browser developer console).

TODO Screenshot

JavaScript functions

You can call JavaScript functions from Scheme, the same as you call Scheme procedures:

(document.querySelector "body")
;; ==> #<HTMLBodyElement>

In both browser and Node.js you can execute console.log:

(console.log "hello, LIPS")
;; ==> hello, LIPS

Callbacks

You can use Scheme functions as callbacks to JavaScript functions:

(--> #("1" "2" "3") (map string->number))
;; ==> #(1 +nan.0 +nan.0)

This is classic issue with functions that accept more than one argument. You have samilar issue in JavaScript:

["1", "2", "3"].map(parseInt)
// ==> [1, NaN, NaN]

NOTE: the value are different becaseu in Shceme i

To fix the issue you can define lambda with single argument:

(--> #("1" "2" "3") (map (lambda (str) (string->number str))))
;; ==> #(1 2 3)

You can also use one of functional helpers insprired by Ramda:

(--> #("1" "2" "3") (map (unary string->number)))
;; ==> #(1 2 3)

The unary higher-order procedure accept a single procedure and return new procedure that accept only one argument.

To read more check Functional helpers.

WARNING be careful when using scheme callback functions inside JavaScript. Since some code may be async and your code may break.

Example of procedures that are not wise to use are:

  • Array::forEach - this function accepts a callaback but because it doesn't return anything, LIPS can't automatically await the response, and your code may execute out of order.
  • String::replace - this function can accept optional callback and if lambda is async you will end up with [object Promise] in output string. Any macro or function can return a promise in LIPS, and if any of the expression inside a function return a Promise, the whole function return a Promise and become async. Here is example code that demonstrate the problem:
(--> "foo bar" (replace "foo" (lambda () (Promise.resolve "xxx"))))
"[object Promise] bar"

Instead of Array::replace you should use LIPS Scheme replace procedure that works with async lambda:

(replace #/[a-z]+/g (lambda ()
                      (Promise.resolve "lips"))
         "foo bar")
;; ==> "lips lips"

Regular Expressions

LIPS define regular expressions it uses native JavaScript regular expressions. At first, the syntax looked like in JavaScript. It was problematic for the parser so you were not able to put space after / to distinguish from divide procedure. Later, the syntax was renamed into form that start with hash #/[0-9]/. The same syntax is used by Gauche implementation. But LIPS supports more flags (same as JavaScript).

Vectors

In LIPS Scheme vectors are JavaScript arrays. So you can execute methods on them with --> macro:

(--> #("one" "two" "three") (join ":"))
;; ==> "one:two:three"

Object literals

In LIPS you can define object literals with & syntax extension:

(define obj &(:name "Jack" :age 22))
(write obj)
;; ==> &(:name "Jack" :age 22)
(console.log obj)
;; ==> { name: 'Jack', age: 22 }

You can nest object literals and mix them with different object:

(define obj &(:name "Jack" :hobbies #("swimming" "programming")))
(write obj.hobbies)
;; ==> #("swimming" "programming")
(console.log obj)
;; ==> { name: 'Jack', hobbies: [ 'swiming', 'programming' ] }

Object similar to Scheme vectors, are immutable, and everything inside is quoted automatically:

(define obj &(:name Jack))
(write obj)
;; ==> &(:name "Jack")

But to make it possible to share objects with JavaScript, native LIPS values are automatically unboxed. So instead of symbol representation you get a JavaScript string.

You can also use quasiquote with object literals:

(define jack (let ((name "Jack")
                   (age 22))
               `&(:name ,name :age ,age)))
(write jack)
;; ==> &(:name "Jack" :age 22)

NOTE: because of the construction of syntax extensions and quasiquote, you can't splice a list inside object literals:

(let ((args (list ':foo "lorem" ':bar "ipsum")))
  `&(,@args))
;; ==> pair (unquote-splicing args) is not a symbol!

The reason why this work like this is because, syntax extensions (&) runs at parse time and LIPS macros are runtime. This may change in the future when expansion time will be implemented.

Objects also have longhand form with object macro:

(let ((obj (object :name 'Jack)))
  (write obj))
;; ==> &(:name "Jack")

But note that object macro is async (return a Promise) so it may be problematic when used it with native JavaScript code.

Using long form (object) syntax you can use splicing with help of eval:

(let ((args '(:foo "lorem" :bar "ipsum")))
   (eval `(object ,@args)))
;; ==> &(:foo "lorem" :bar "ipsum")

The same you can use macros that will return LIPS Scheme code:

(define-macro (create-object . args)
  `(object ,@args))

(create-object :foo "lorem" :bar "ipsum")
;; ==> &(:foo "lorem" :bar "ipsum")

NOTE: this example macro works the same object is it's not that useful, but you can create more complex code where you will be able to generate object literals with splicing.

Object literal also have shorthad notation:

(let ((obj &(:x :y)))
  (write obj))
;; ==> &(:x #void :y #void)

It creates two writtable slots, the rest of the props are read only:

(let ((obj &(:x :y)))
  (set! obj.x 10)
  (set! obj.y 20)
  (write obj))
;; ==> &(:x 10 :y 20)

(let ((obj &(:x :y)))
  (set! obj.z 20)
  (write obj))
;; ==> Cannot add property z, object is not extensible

(let ((obj &(:x :y :z 10)))
  (set! obj.z 20)
  (write obj))
;; ==> Cannot assign to read only property 'z' of object '#<Object>'

Automagic async/await

LIPS do automatic async/await so it waits for any promise before evaluating next expression.

(Promise.resolve "xxx")
;; ==> "xxx"

This simplifies code when using promises, for instance using fetch API.

(--> (fetch "https://scheme.org.pl/test/") (text) (match #/<h1>([^>]+)<\/h1>/) 1)
;; ==> "Scheme is Super Fun"

This is equivalent of JavaScript using async/await:

cons res = await fetch("https://scheme.org.pl/test/");
const text = await res.text();
text.match(/<h1>([^>]+)<\/h1>/)[1];

Promise quotation

Sometimes you need to process promises as values, for this LIPS support quotation of promises. You escape automagic async/await realm and get access to promise as value: to quote a promise you use '> syntax extension. To again get into automatic async/await you can use (await) procedure

(let ((promise (--> '>(fetch "https://scheme.org.pl/test/")
                      (then (lambda (res)
                              (res.text)))
                      (then (lambda (text)
                              (. (text.match #/<h1>([^>]+)<\/h1>/) 1))))))
  (print (await promise)))
;; ==> Scheme is Super Fun

NOTE Inside then lambda promises are still automagically resolved.

(--> '>(Promise.resolve "hello")
       (then (lambda (value)
               (print (string-append value " " (Promise.resolve "LIPS"))))))
;; ==> hello LIPS

Promises vs delay expression

Don't confuse JavaScript promises with delay expressions. Their representation looks similar:

(delay 10)
;; ==> #<promise - not forced>
'>(Promise.resolve 10)
;; ==> #<js-promise resolved (number)>

You can check if a value is a promise by quoting the expression and using promise? predicate:

(let ((a '>10)
      (b '>(Promise.resolve 10)))
  (print (promise? a))
  (print (promise? b)))
;; ==> #f
;; ==> #t

Exceptions

LIPS Scheme use javascript exception system. To throw an exception you use:

(throw "This is error")
;; ==> Error: This is error

or

(raise (new Error "error"))

The raise procedure throw any object and throw wraps the argument in new Error.

You can catch exceptions with LIPS specific try..catch..finally:

(try
 (throw "nasty")
 (catch (e)
        (print (string-append "error " e.message " was caught"))))
;; ==> error nasty was caught

You can also have finally expression:

(try
 (throw "nasty")
 (catch (e)
        (print (string-append "error " e.message " was caught")))
 (finally
  (print "nothing happened")))
;; ==> error nasty was caught
;; ==> nothing happened

You can also define finally without catch:

(try
 (throw "nasty")
 (finally
  (print "after error")))
;; ==> after error
;; ==> nasty

NOTE the order of execution is not expected, but it may change in the future.

LIPS also define R7RS guard procedure that is just a macro that use try..catch behind the scene:

(guard (e ((list? e) (print (string-append "Error: " (car e)))))
       (raise '("error")))
;; ==> Error: error

JavaScript Generars and iterators

Right now there is no way to define JavaScript generators inside LIPS. You can create iterator using iteration prorocol, But to have yield keyword you need continuations, they are part of the LIPS Roadmap.

Here is example of creating iterator in LIPS:

(let ((obj (object))
      (max 5))
  (set-obj! obj Symbol.iterator
            (lambda ()
              (let ((i 0))
                `&(:next ,(lambda ()
                            (set! i (+ i 1))
                            (if (> i max)
                                `&(:done #t)
                                `&(:done #f :value ,(/ 1 i))))))))
  (print (iterator->array obj))
  (print (Array.from obj)))
;; ==> #(1 1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5)
;; ==> #(1 1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5)

Array.from can't be used for every possible case because it will unbox the values (and convert rational to float), here it doesn't happen because LIPS don't treat JavaScript iterators in any special way (it may change in the future). But Array.from will convert the array of rationals to float if used on normal vector:

(Array.from #(1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5))
;; ==> #(0.5 0.3333333333333333 0.25 0.2)

NOTE: be careful when using iterator protocol because any function side Scheme can return a promise. If you would change quoted object literal `&() with longhand object you will get an error because object is async.

You can abstract the use of iteration protocol with a macro, but to have real yield keyword like syntax you need call/cc.

You can also define generators inside JavaScript using self.eval (JavaScript global eval):

(define gen (self.eval "(async function* gen(time, ...args) {
                          function delay(time) {
                            return new Promise((resolve) => {
                              setTimeout(resolve, time);
                            });
                          }
                          for (let x of args) {
                            await delay(time);
                            yield x;
                          }
                        })"))

(iterator->array (gen 100 1 2 3 4 5))
;; ==> #(1 2 3 4 5)

Here is example of async generator written in JavaScript.

Classes

In LIPS, you can define JavaScript classes with define-class macro:

(define-class Person Object
   (constructor (lambda (self name)
                   (set! self.name name)))
   (greet (lambda (self)
            (string-append "hello, " self.name))))

(define jack (new Person "Jack"))
(write jack)
;; ==> #<Person>
(jack.greet)
;; ==> "hello, Jack"

define-class is macro written in Scheme that uses JavaScript prototypes behind the scene.

The class always need to have a base class (parent) or you need to use null. Classes have explicit self as first argument (similar to Python) but this also works inside functions:

(set! jack.run (lambda () (string-append "run, " this.name)))
(jack.run)
;; ==> "run, Jack"

To create the new instance of a Class, you can use new procedure.

You can also manipulate JavaScript prototypes directly:

(write Person.prototype)
;; ==> #<prototype>
(set! Person.prototype.toString (lambda () (string-append "#<Person (" this.name ")>")))
(display (jack.toString))
;; ==> #<Person (Jack)>

By default toString is not used for representation of objects, but you add representation if you want. See Homoiconic data types.

Node.js

In Node.js, you can load JavaScript modules with require:

(define fs (require "fs/promises"))
(let ((fname "tmp.txt"))
  (fs.writeFile fname "hello LIPS")
  (write (fs.readFile fname "utf-8")))
;; ==> "hello LIPS"

In above code, you can see example of automagic async/await.

If you have to use callback based API in Node, use promisify function from Module util.

You can also use the Promise constructor yourself:

(define fs (require "fs"))

(define-macro (async expr)
  (let ((resolve (gensym "resolve"))
        (reject (gensym "reject")))
    `(new Promise (lambda (,resolve ,reject)
                    ,(append expr (list `(lambda (err data)
                                           ;; Node.js error is null when no error
                                           (if err
                                               (,reject err)
                                               (,resolve data)))))))))

(let ((fname "tmp.txt"))
  (async (fs.writeFile fname "Hello, LIPS!"))
  (write (async (fs.readFile fname "utf-8"))))
;; ==> "Hello, LIPS!"

In the above example, we import a regular callback based fs module and use the Promise constructor abstracted away with a lisp macro.

Finding LIPS Scheme directory

With help from (require.resolve) you can get the path of the root directory of LIPS Scheme:

(--> (require.resolve "@jcubic/lips") (replace #/dist\/[^\/]+$/ ""))

Node.js REPL load lips from Common.jS file and require.resolve returns path to file dist/lips.cjs, by removing with with String::replace and regular expression you can the real path to the root of the LIPS Scheme.

Binary compiler

LIPS Scheme have dumb binary compiler. The compiler is a way to compress the LIPS Scheme code and create binary file that is faster to load. Compiler is use to make bootstrapping faster. The binary file use CBOR serialization format that is then compressed with LZJB algorithm that is pretty fast. And it can still be compress further with gzip by the HTTP server.

To compile/compress a file you can use -c flag when executing lips executable.

$ lips -c file.scm

You can then execute the code with:

$ lips -c file.xcb

Will create file.xcb in same directory. For smaller files it make not have a difference when loading .xcb or .scm files.

NOTE: directives #!fold-case and #!no-fold-case work only inside the parser and they are treated as comments, so you can't compile the code that have those directives.